如何進入醫學研究領域及如何寫論文

如何進入醫學研究領域及如何寫論文

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如何進入醫學研究領域及如何寫論文

中西醫結合臨床研究中心-鄭啓清

 一、為何要做研究?

Why doctors consider carrying out a research project?

to learn new things

to improve career progression

for a change in life style and in academia

 二、拜師學藝

Choice of a supervisor is intimately linked with your project - their interests will soon be your interests. If you pick a clinician, they may be busy to clinical priorities, but they understand you better.

If you choose a scientist, they will supervise you more directly. Things to consider: what is the set up and size of the lab, will you and your project fit in with others? Is there a track record of medics in the lab?

 三、研究主題

It’s a good idea to approach established labs or groups who you have a link with.

Asking for introductions through colleagues. Discuss your interests with theirs and see if you can come up with something suitable.

Often, supervisors have several projects in mind that they’ve been looking for someone to carry out.

The important thing is to make sure you are actually interested in the project enough to spend a few years of your life on it.

 四、其他考慮問題

1. Implications for the rest of your career.

2. Will it involve whole animal work?

3. What are your priorities?

4. Is it relevant to your clinical interests?

5. Will it lead to publications and conference presentations?

6. Do you want to get a PhD or MS degree?

五、Clinical projects

You should be aware that clinical projects tend to take a long time to get going.

There can also be lots of waiting for ethics approval and the recruitment of patients.

However, the results can be easier to get published.

六、Basic science projects

There are advantages. As soon as you start, you start.

There is a lot of opportunity to learn new techniques and skills and become immersed in science.

Your research may be more widely respected, and mini clinical projects can be pursued at the same time.

However, a doctor going into a science project will have to be more self-reliant.

七、研究倫理

All research ethics is now done centrally via the IRB Service or Animal Research Committee.

Filling in ethics forms can be a long-winded process, but is an essential one. You will need one for anything involving patients, or their tissues, or their genetic material.

This is a legal requirement and cannot be applied for retrospectively.

 八、如何寫計畫書?

Have a go; it is your project and should be your work. But be prepared for it to be significantly changed.

Ask your supervisor for comments and read someone else’s successful submission as a guide.

Get help for English and proposal.

 九、主題Topic

Decide on your topic. You probably have a general idea of what you want to write about.

Narrow that down to a specific focus by doing an initial survey of the research available.

Find background information about your topic and identify potential sources that you can use.

Ask your supervisor or professor for feedback and suggestions.

 十、如何寫論文?

What kind of research paper?

Quantitative studies consist of original research performed by the writer. These papers include Hypothesis (or Research Question), Previous Findings, Method, Limitations, Results, Discussion, and Application.

Synthesis papers review the research already published and analyze it. It finds weaknesses and strengths in the research, applies it to a specific situation, and then indicates a direction for future research.

 Titles

i. Nominal

ii. Compound

iii. Full sentence

iv. Question

 Reading articles, books, and websites

Complete your research by reading appropriate articles, books, and websites. Ask people who have special knowledge or experience with your issue.

Find journals and books or websites for specific organizations.

Keep track of your sources. Write down all publication information: author, title of article, title of book or journal, publisher, edition, date published, volume number, issue number, page number

 十一、做功課Take notes

Take good notes.

Copy directly from the article or book, and indicate that these are direct quotes by using quotation marks.

This helps prevent accidental plagiarizing when you write your research paper.

Be sure to note the page or paragraph number as well.

十二、大綱Outline your research paper

Organize it in a way that makes sense and is easy to follow. 起承轉合

Determine what information fits best under each heading or section.

Integrate your sources as much as possible.

十三、Write your research paper

Be sure to format it correctly.

Aim for 10-20 pages unless instructed differently.

Use a standard font type and size, such as Times New Roman 12 point font, and double-space your paper.

十四、攥寫論文報告

Divide your paper into logical sections. The sections of your paper are determined by the type of paper you are writing.

 If it is a quatitative study, it needs to include the sections mentioned above (i.e., Hypothesis, Previous Findings, etc.).

If it is a qualitative study, organize your paper into main points that make sense and progress naturally.

十五、Write your research paper

Divide your paper into logical sections. The sections of your paper are determined by the type of paper you are writing.

Begin with ‘Materials and Methods’ first.

十六、Introduction

Introduce your reader to the topic of your research paper.

Provide basic background information,

why you are writing this paper,

and what they can expect

十七、Results and Discussion

Use figures or photographs and Tables

Do not repeat the same information in the introduction section.

十八、參考資料

Cite sources using the American Medical Association (AMA) style guide.

Basic citations include the author's name, title of work, Journal or publisher, city, and publication date or volume and pages.

Check your internal citations. Internal citations are used to indicate that you are using someone else's research or ideas. They include the author's last name, year of publication.

十九、Conclusion

Summarize the main points of your medical research paper.

Highlight potential applications of the theory if appropriate.


 

*「本著作非經著作權人同意,不得轉載、翻印或轉售。」-著作權人:鄭啟清


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